In this paper I present a list of the exempla used in the four surviving ancient collections of declamations (see Appendix: checklist of exempla), with a brief survey of the theory of the exemplum in rhetorical handbooks and discussion of a few samples from the Controversiae and the Declamationes maiores. My observations suggest that Seneca's criticism of the use of exempla in declamations (Contr. 7.5.12–13) is exaggerated.
- Calpurnius Flaccus
- Controversiae et Suasoriae
- Declamationes maiores
- Declamationes minores
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